Represents different types of values used in a dataset and defined by the data provider. The new ecoSpold2 data format allows the use of formulas to calculate the amounts of flows and other entities in the datasets. For example the yield of chemical reaction can be inserted in the dataset as a parameter.


ecoSpold2 Format

parent dataset

A dataset referred to by a child dataset as the dataset from which field values in the child dataset are to be inherited to the extent defined, i.e. parent datasets serve as basis of their associated child datasets. Only geographical inheritance is allowed in the ecoinvent version 3 database, i.e. some regional datasets (such as Brazilian soybean production) might be modelled as a child dataset of the global dataset. In child datasets values can be set to relate to the corresponding value in the parent dataset. When such a related value is changed in the parent dataset it is automatically changed in the child dataset as well.


Abbreviation for particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 µm


Abbreviation for particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 µm


A term used in ecoinvent version 2 which was replaced in ecoinvent version 3 by the more generic term activity. Process represents set of interrelated or interacting activities that transforms inputs into outputs (ISO 14040).

process water

Water used by a process excluding cooling water. In most cases, process water is in contact with the product. This water does not include incorporated water in inputs used by the process.

produced water

This can occur in the case of some chemical reactions.


Good or service output of a human activity with a positive either market or non-market value. While in ecoinvent version 2 the product name was identical with the activity name, in ecoinvent version 3 the product name is independent from the activity name. For example in ecoinvent version 2 "chloroacetic acid, at plant" is a name for both the activity and the product. The same dataset in ecoinvent version 3 is called "chloroacetic acid production" which produces the product called "chloroacetic acid".

product water content

This is the flow from another process in the system (technosphere flow). Every product has water content and therefore can be used to balance the water flows. This is especially important for water transport and treatment processes (e.g. water supply and waste water treatment). The product water content is presented in the ecoinvent version 3 database via the water in wet mass property.

production mix

The production-volume-weighted average of the suppliers of a specific product within a geographical area.


Every exchange (both elementary and intermediate) with a mass can have a number of properties. For example, every product currently present in the database has at least the following properties; wet massdry masswater in wet masswater content, carbon content, fossil and carbon content, non-fossil.